L. Watts, F. Baskett, "Image Correction After Combining Images From Multiple Cameras", United States Patent Number 8,619,148, December 31, 2013.

L. Watts, "Commercializing Auditory Neuroscience", Allen Brain Institute 2013 Annual Symposium, September 26, 2013.

P. Santos, L. Watts, C. Murgia, B. Clark, "Providing Background Audio during Telephonic Communication", United States Patent Number 8,488,805, July 16, 2013.

L. Watts, "Computing Architectures Based on the Human Auditory Pathway", Sandia National Labs / DARPA Neuro-Inspired Computational Elements Workshop, February 25-27, 2013, Albuquerque, New Mexico, http://nice.sandia.gov/presentations.html .
L. Watts, "Computing Architectures Based on the Human Auditory Pathway", Video of workshop presentation.

C. Avendano, P. Santos, L. Watts, "System and Method for Utilizing Inter-Microphone Level Differences for Speech Enhancement", United States Patent Number 8,345,890, January 1, 2013.

D. Klein, S. Malinowski, L. Watts, B. Mont-Reynaud, "Systems and Methods for Audio Signal Analysis and Modification", United States Patent Number 8,315,857, November 20, 2012.

L. Watts, "Reverse-Engineering the Human Auditory Pathway", in J. Liu et al. (Eds.): IEEE WCCI 2012, LNCS 7311, pp. 4759, 2012.

L. Solbach, L. Watts, "System and Method for Processing an Audio Signal", United States Patent Number 8,150,065, April 3, 2012.

S. Isabelle, L. Watts, "Additional inter-lab comparison of test results according to EG 202-396-3", 3GPP TSG-SA4#66, Tdoc S4-111006, Jeju Island, Korea, November 7-11, 2011.

S. Isabelle, M. Parvaix, L. Watts, "P.ONRA Contribution Additional results from a candidate algorithm", ITU COM 12 - C 288 - E, Study Group 12, Contribution 288, October 2011, Geneva, Switzerland.

L. Watts, "Distortion Measurement for Noise Suppression System", United States Patent Number 8,032,364, October 4, 2011.

L. Watts, S. Isabelle, M. Parvaix, "Correlation of ETSI EG 202 396-3 Objective Speech Quality Measures to P.835 Subjective Test Results", 3GPP TSG-SA4#65, Tdoc S4-110763, Kista, Sweden, August 15-19, 2011.

L. Watts, M. Parvaix, S. Isabelle, "P.ONRA contribution preliminary results from candidate algorithm", ITU COM 12 - C 184 - E, Study Group 12, Contribution 184, January 2011, Geneva, Switzerland.

L. Watts, "2-Microphone Noise Reduction for Cell Phones Based on the Human Auditory Pathway", Speech In Noise Workshop, Lyon, France, January 6-7, 2011.

L. Watts, "Real-Time, High-Resolution Simulation of the Auditory Pathway, with Application to Cell-Phone Noise Reduction", ISCAS 2010, June 2, 2010, pp. 3821-3824.

L. Watts (featured contributor), "Nexus One: The Story - Episode 1: Concept & Design", Google Technology Video, February, 2010.

A video describing Audience's contribution in the first high-profile product available in the United States.


P. Zhang, L. Watts, "Voice Enhancement Devices: Amendment 1: Revised Appendix II - Objective Measures for the Characterization of the basic functioning of noise reduction algorithms", ITU-T Recommendation G.160 Amendment 1, November, 2009.

L. Watts, "Cellphone Noise Reduction Based on the Human Hearing System", Audience Technology Video, 2009.

L. Watts, D. Massie, A. Sansano, J. Huey, "Voice Processors Based on the Human Hearing System", IEEE Micro, March/April 2009, pp. 5461.

D. Klein, L. Watts, "Reverberation Removal", United States Patent Number 7,508,948, March 24, 2009.

L. Watts, "Advanced Noise Reduction for Mobile Telephony", IEEE Computer, vol. 41, no. 8, August 2008, pp. 90-92.

The first formal publication describing Audience's first product.


L. Watts, "Multi-Source Phoneme Classification for Noise-Robust Automatic Speech Recognition", United States Patent Number 7,319,959, January 15, 2008.

L. Watts, "Subjective test methodology for evaluating speech communication systems that include noise suppression algorithm, Amendment 1: New Appendix III - Additional provisions for nonstationary noise suppressors", ITU-T Recommendation P.835 Amendment 1, October, 2007.

L. Watts, "The Future of Cognitive Computing", in Cognitive Computing 2007, 2007.

L. Watts, "Commercializing Auditory Neuroscience", in Frontiers of Engineering: Reports on Leading-Edge Engineering from the 2006 Symposium, published by National Academy of Engineering, 2007, pp. 5-14.

This document described the evolving commercial agenda for Audience, as the product strategy began to develop.


L. Watts, "Efficient Computation of Log-Frequency-Scale Digital Filter Cascade", United States Patent Number 7,076,315, July 11, 2006.

L. Watts, "Computation of Multi-Sensor Time Delays", United States Patent Number 6,792,118, September 14, 2004.

L. Watts, "Visualizing Complexity in the Brain", in Computational Intelligence: The Experts Speak, edited by D. Fogel and C. Robinson, IEEE Press/Wiley, 2003, pp. 45-56.

This keynote speech provided the first formal publication of the scientific agenda for Audience.


L. Watts, "Memory Cell Array for Performing a Comparison", United States Patent Number 6,198,668, March 6, 2001.

L. Watts, early Neuroscience web page, written in 2000.

Describes agenda for reverse-engineering the auditory pathway, early real-time cochlear model running on Xilinx board at Interval, early Quicktime animations -- an early look at the scientific foundation for Audience.


L. Watts, early Cochlear Models web page, written in 2000.

Summarizes the pre-Audience work on analytical (mathematical) cochlear models and analog electronic cochlear models.


L. Watts, "The Mode-Coupling Liouville-Green Approximation for a two-dimensional Cochlear Model", Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 2266-2271, Nov., 2000.

P. Hafliger, M. Mahowald, L. Watts, "A Spike-Based Learning Neuron in Analog VLSI", Proceedings of the the Ninth Neural Information Processing Systems Conference, 1996.

L. Watts, "Event-Driven Simulation of Networks of Spiking Neurons", Proceedings of the Sixth Neural Information Processing Systems Conference, 1993, pp. 927-934.

L. Watts, Spike and Neuralog software release, 1993.

L. Watts, "Cochlear Mechanics: Analysis and Analog VLSI", Doctoral Dissertation, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 1992.

L. Watts, "Designing Networks of Spiking Silicon Neurons and Synapses", Proceedings of Computation and Neural Systems Meeting CNS*92, San Francisco, CA, 1992.

L. Watts, D. Kerns, R. Lyon, C. Mead, "Improved Implementation of the Silicon Cochlea", IEEE Journal of Solid-state Circuits, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 692-700, May, 1992.

D. Kirk, K. Fleischer, L. Watts, A. Barr, "Constrained Optimization Applied to the Parameter Setting Problem for Analog Circuits", Proceedings of the Fourth Neural Information Processing Systems Conference, 1991, pp. 789-796.

L. Watts, R. F. Lyon, C. Mead, "A Bidirectional Analog VLSI Cochlear Model", Advanced Research in VLSI, Proceedings of the 1991 Santa Cruz Conference, C. Sequin, ed., Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991, pp. 153-163.

V. Cuperman, L. Watts, R. Pettigrew, "Low Delay Vector Backward Predictive Coding of Speech", United States Patent Number 4,963,034, October 16, 1990. Sold in 1999 to Cisco for $1M.

L. Watts, "Vector quantization and scalar linear prediction for waveform coding of speech at 16 kb/s", M.A.Sc. Thesis, Simon Fraser University, 1990.

L. Watts, V. Cuperman, "A Vector ADPCM Analysis-by-Synthesis Configuration for 16 kbit/s Speech Coding", Proc. GLOBECOM, Hollywood, Florida, November, 1988.

L. Watts, V. Cuperman, "Design of a 16 kbit/s Vector ADPCM Speech Coding Algorithm", Proc. Can. Conf. on Elec. and Comp. Eng., Vancouver, Canada, November, 1988.

L. Watts, "Development of a VLSI Viterbi Codec", Proc. IEEE Pacific Rim Conf., June, 1987.